It is not difficult to want fruit trees to be productive, and this can be achieved!2020-07-31 10:26
1. The spring and autumn shoots of fruit trees
①What is the phenomenon of spring and autumn shoots: It refers to the phenomenon that the growth of new shoots of fruit trees is stagnant under the conditions of high temperature in summer, and the growth will resume after the temperature returns to suitable conditions in autumn.
②Reasonable use of spring and autumn shoots: This phenomenon leads to the second peak of root growth in the life of fruit trees, which is the best time for top dressing.
2. Fruit expansion period
①The concept of hard-core period: refers to the fruit's diameter of about 3 cm, which is slightly smaller than walnut. At this time, the internal material of the core is being formed, but the growth of the ground part is slow, usually in mid-to-late May, which also requires a relatively large amount of fertilizer period.
②The concept of the second fruit expansion period: refers to the period when the new shoots stop growing due to the influence of high temperature, at which time the root system begins to grow rapidly, the ability to absorb nutrients is enhanced, and the fruit expands rapidly, generally in late June and early to mid-July. It is also the best period for top dressing.
3. The phenomenon of large and small fruit trees
Too much flowering and fruiting in the first year will cause the fruit trees to consume too much nutrients in the year, resulting in weaker tree vigor in the second year, less flowering and fruiting, and a small year; improper or extensive management of the orchard, such as unbalanced fertilizer and water application or improper pruning, This results in unbalanced growth of the tree; lack of boron fertilizer in the tree body leads to poor differentiation of the flower buds of the fruit tree, obstacles to the pollination and fertilization process, which affects the overall yield.
4. Leaf spray fertilizer and fruit tree production
It can avoid the fixation and loss of certain nutrients in the soil, and improve the utilization of nutrients; it is not affected by the nutrient center of the tree such as the top advantage, and the nutrients can be distributed and utilized nearby, so the middle and lower branches of the fruit tree can also get nutrients; The absorption and action of the drug are fast, and sometimes it has an immediate effect in the correction of element deficiency. The commonly used foliar fertilizers for fruit trees are: boron fertilizer, iron fertilizer, zinc fertilizer, calcium fertilizer, potassium fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer and so on.
5. Fruit tree diseases and fruit tree nutrition
The lack of trace elements in the soil leads to malnutrition of the tree, weak tree vigor, and reduced resistance. It is the main cause of disease such as ring disease, rot disease, and dry rot; excessive nitrogen fertilizer and excessive tree vigor will cause The stems, leaves and fruits compete for nutrients, which affect the swelling and coloring of the fruits. At the same time, it is also the main cause of fruit gum disease. Improper plastic pruning can cause unreasonable nutrient supply of the tree, uneven growth of the tree, and poor internal ventilation and light transmission. Causes a high incidence of pests and diseases.
6. Fertilization period of fruit trees
①Applying base fertilizer in autumn: This period is the third growth peak of fruit trees, which is generally carried out in October. The nutrient requirements are comprehensive, and it can supply nutrients evenly and long-term.
②Sprouting fertilizer and pre-flowering fertilizer: 2 to 4 weeks before germination, this period is the first growth peak of the root system of fruit trees. The tree body mainly consumes storage nutrients, mainly using quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer, which can improve the fruit setting rate and the regularity of the branches.
③Fruit-preserving fertilizer, flower bud differentiation fertilizer: Use when the new shoots stop growing, usually in early June, with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and slightly supplemented.
④Fruit-expanding fertilizer: Use when the fruit expands rapidly and the growth of new shoots stops. This period is the second growth peak of fruit trees, usually in July; the purpose is to enrich new shoots, promote fruit expansion, improve fruit quality, and promote flower buds. Continue to differentiate, dominated by phosphorus and potassium fertilizers.
⑤ Post-harvest fertilizer, return fertilizer: use after fruit harvest, mainly nitrogen fertilizer, and mix with phosphorus and potassium fertilizer.
7. Fertilization methods for fruit trees
① Ring-shaped fertilization method: Dig a ring-shaped trench 30-50 cm wide and 20-40 cm deep at the outer edge of the canopy projection. Mix fertilizer and soil. This method is mostly used in the young tree stage.
②Radial fertilization method: within and outside the projection of the canopy are about 40 cm, along the horizontal root growth direction, dig 6-8 radiating ditches with a width of 30 cm and a depth of 20-40 cm. The shape is "narrow inside and wide outside, shallow inside and outside. "Deep", fertilizer and soil are mixed and applied. This method is mostly used for adult trees.
③Cubular fertilization method: dig holes 30-40 cm deep and 30 cm in diameter on the outer edge of the canopy projection every 50 cm, and mix fertilizer with soil. This method is mostly used for topdressing chemical fertilizer or liquid fertilizer.